As one of the top exporters in the world, India’s merchandise exports is booming. Government policies and initiatives to smoothen and simplify export procedures and documentation
have helped many Indian exporters. Understanding exports logistics process
and choosing the right mode of shipping is a crucial step. An important document in this process is a Bill of Lading
– issued by the carrier company to the shipper, which acts as proof of contract for the goods being shipped. When the shipment is transported via ocean, the legal document required is the Ocean Bill of Lading.
What is an Ocean Bill of Lading?
An Ocean Bill of Lading (OBOL) is a type of legal document between the consignor and the carrier of goods. An OBOL acts as a carrier’s receipt to the consignor defining various details including1:
• Associations or parties engaged in the ocean shipment process
• Category of products
• Quantity of products
• Condition/description of products
• Destination details where the products need to be shipped
• Routing details
How does an Ocean Bill of Lading work?
To carry a consignment of goods globally, exporters approach the shipping company for a legal document – an Ocean Bill of Lading. The ocean carrier signs an Ocean Bill of Lading form and declares the responsibility of shipping goods from port of receipt to port of destination. The bill can be issued in either of the two ways:
• Post-paid basis: Shipping charges are paid by the consignee.
• Pre-paid basis: Responsibility of shipping charges is on the shipper.
There are three copies of the bill issued and is kept by each of the member4:
• Third party (such as bank, freight forwarders or broker)
• Shipper and the ocean carrier sign the Ocean Bill of Lading form at the time of shipment.
• Consignee signs the document on the time of receiving goods.
What is the purpose of an Ocean Bill of lading?
An Ocean Bill of Lading serves three main purposes2:
Authority of title
An OBOL grants legal ownership title to the cargo (products shipped via ships) mentioned in the bill.
It functions as a rightful legal receipt for the goods boarded on the shipping vessel. It acts as a confirmation letter between shipper and carrier as proof of shipment.
Ocean BOL is a proof of settlement between a shipper and a carrier. The legal document is issued at the time of loading goods.
Types of Ocean Bill of Lading
Below are a few types of Ocean Bill of Lading on the basis of terms and conditions of a contract3.
Straight Bill of Lading
is typically used to describe a non-negotiable bill of lading. It is a contract in which a seller promises to ship goods to a specified location using a certain mode of transportation and assigns the bill to a specific consignee.
Shipper’s Order Bill of Lading
It is first approved by the consignee and then a signed copy of the document is sent to the importer’s bank. The document remains with the bank till the transaction is completed. After receiving the record, the bank transfers it to the buyer.
Clean Bill of Lading
When the shipper receives the shipment, a quality check of the goods is carried out. After the goods pass inspections
successfully, a Clean BOL
is passed which allows the buyer to receive the goods.
On Board Bill of Lading
An On Board BOL is issued at the time of loading goods onto a shipping vessel. It is signed by the owner of that vessel.
Ocean Bill of Lading example
Let’s consider this example. When an automobile manufacturer from Germany needs to transport vehicles globally to an importer in the USA, it will require an ocean BOL. Thus, a US-based dealership will sign an Ocean Bill of Lading with the manufacturer in Germany for the transport of vehicles to the United States.
Easy e-commerce exports with Amazon
With the growing demand for Indian products in international marketplaces
, exporters and Indian sellers are keen to expand their businesses to the world. Amazon Global Selling
is an e-commerce exports program that enables exporters and MSMEs to start and grow their export business in 200+ countries and territories. The exporter can simply register with the program in four simple steps and reach millions of customers shopping on 18+ Amazon international marketplaces.
Published on September 19, 2022.
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*Map not to scale. The map has been used for design and representational purpose only, it does not depict the geographical boundaries of the country. These do not conform to the external boundaries of India recognized by the Survey of India.